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Got Milk? |有生牛奶吗?

A young man sidles2 up to a drop point in New York City. Reaching into his pocket, he pulls out a few bills and exchanges them for a brown paper bag. Then, looking both ways, he turns and hurries away.
What is the young man buying? Drugs? Stolen electronics? No. Raw milk—milk that has not been pasteurized3.
The sale of raw milk is illegal in New York City. However, some residents defy4 the law to buy the stuff. They swear by5 its taste and nutritional6 value. Across the country, other people are taking the same risk to get raw milk. Are they risking their health as well?

Cow Sharing
The milk that most of us drink today is pasteurized. Pasteurization, named after its inventor, French chemist Louis Pasteur (1822—1895), is a process in which a liquid is heated to kill microbes7 (viruses, bacteria).
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned the sale of raw milk across state lines 20 years ago. However, the legal sale of raw milk within states varies from state to state. In California, raw milk is widely available on supermarket shelves. In New York State, residents can buy it at only 19 approved dairies8. In Maryland, selling raw milk is illegal—no exceptions.
In those states where raw milk is restricted or illegal, some residents bypass9 the law through“cow sharing.” They become part owners of cows to acquire raw milk.
People who go to such lengths10 claim that raw milk has more nutrients and tastes better than the pasteurized kind. Sally Fallon is president of the Weston A. Price Foundation, which runs a campaign called Real Milk.“I am first and foremost11 a mother,” she told Current Science.“This foundation was formed with the idea of infants and children in mind.” She fed her own children raw milk whenever it was available and credits12 their good health—strong bones, no allergies13, no need for braces14—to what she calls“this amazing food—milk.”
Proponents15 of raw milk and raw milk products say pasteurization kills “friendly” bacteria that aid digestion16 and strengthen the body’s immune17 system. They also contend18 that raw milk is a better source of vitamin B6 as well as the enzymes lipase19 and phosphatase20. An enzyme is a protein that aids chemical reactions in the body.
Jeffrey Karns, a microbiologist at the U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), has a different take on raw milk.“There is no proof that raw milk is any more nutritious than pasteurized milk,” he told Current Science.“Pasteurized milk is usually fortified21 with vitamin D, which helps the body utilize the calcium22 in milk. So in some ways, processed milk is more nutritious than raw milk.”
Karns adds that the enzyme content of raw milk and pasteurized milk are the same, though the heating process deactivates23 some enzymes in pasteurized milk. Even if raw milk had more enzymes, he says, the“extremely acid” environment of the human stomach would break them down.

Risk and Benefits
Food scientists have long considered pasteurization one of the great advances in public health. In 1938, before pasteurization was widely practiced in the United States, milk caused one-quarter of all outbreaks of food-and water-related sickness. That number dropped to just 1 percent by 1993, according to the Center for Science in the Public Interest, a nutrition advocacy group.
In 2002, the USDA studied raw milk by analyzing samples from 861 farms in 26 states. Up to 23 percent of the raw milk samples might have contained disease-causing forms of bacteria.
That’s not all. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention claims that 45 outbreaks of food-borne disease caused by consumption of raw milk or raw-milk cheese occurred between 1998 and 2005. More than 1,000 people became sick; 104 were admitted to hospitals; and two died.
In light of such numbers, Gregory Miller, vice president of the National Dairy Council, recently told The Washington Post that drinking raw milk is “playing Russian roulette24... Why would you take that risk?”

Who’s at Risk?
What is Karns’s opinion about the risks of drinking raw milk?“Healthy adults would probably suffer mostly mild gastric25 distress,” he says.“It’s kids, elderly folks, pregnant26 women, and the immunocompromised27 who are most at risk. They are more vulnerable28 to infections because their immune systems are either not fully developed (kids) or are not functioning at maximum efficiency (pregnant women and elderly people).”
Fallon still believes that the USDA bacteria test results weren’t conclusive29. She predicts that in 20 years, public schools will be feeding raw milk to schoolchildren.
Or not.“This craze for raw milk will never completely disappear,” says Karns.“There will always be someone out there who believes in some magical properties of raw milk.”






1. craze [kreiz] n. 狂热,流行
2. sidle   v. 悄悄地移动
3. pasteurize   v. 用巴士杀菌法消毒

4. defy   v. 违抗,蔑视
5. swear by 非常信赖某物的功效
6. nutritional   adj. 营养的
7. microbe   n. 微生物,细菌
8. dairy   n. 乳品店
9. bypass   v. 绕过;忽视
10. go to any, some, great etc. lengths (to do sth) (为达到某目的)不顾一切, 不遗余力
11. first and foremost 首要地
12. credit   v. 把…归功于
13. allergy   n. 过敏症
14. braces   n. 牙箍
15. proponent   n. 支持者,倡导者
16. digestion   n. 消化
17. immune   adj. 免疫的
18. contend  v. 主张,认为
19. lipase   n. 脂肪酶
20. phosphatase   n. 磷酸酶
21. fortify   v. 增加(食物)营养价值
22. calcium  n. 钙
23. deactivate   v. 使无效,使不活动
24. roulette  n. 轮盘赌
25. gastric  adj. 胃的
26. pregnant   adj. 怀孕的
27. immunocompromised   adj. 免疫缺失的
28. vulnerable   adj. 易受伤害的
29. conclusive   adj. 决定性的,确凿的