大学作文:经验谈阅读指导

Managing I


雪冰灵

  管理学原理final paper。几个小问题的论述。问题是,题目找不到了……如果到时候找的到,就贴文后留言板。
  Total words(excluding references): 2332  
  1. (words: 358)   小荷作文网 www.zww.cn
   With the quick development of society, new challenges arose for Chinese managers. The four examples, international competition, high level of living conditions, electronic technology development and cultural differences, all are tough nuts to crack.  
  First, Chinese managers have to face up with both native and foreign competitors. The globalization is a unavoidable trend and now the Chinese market is no longer owned by its natives. To be specific, in the 21st Century, Chinese’s vast territory and abundant resources attract many foreign companies. The increasing number of foreign companies, coming with more scientific and advanced technology, has brought new challenges for natives. Native managers have to analyze new situations deeply and make great efforts to survive in the tough competition.  
   Secondly, the society develops with the higher wages for labor and higher levels of living conditions for most people. Salary expenses will be lager and lager, and meanwhile, people’s needs of safety guarantees such as pension and unemployment insurance is lager, which in turn cost more money for the company. Weather the company can hire worthy employees with minimum cost is a more important problem now.  
   Thirdly, the development of electronic technology is also a new problem for some company. Nowadays people rely more and more on the computers and phones, and managers should follow this trend. For instance, electronic business is very popular now, and the managers should consider about weather to spend money to equip the company and build online website, weather to expand the new market online and how to win more consumers by Internet.  
   Last but not least, we can’t ignore the cultural difference. “Everyone is different on account of different local beliefs, life experiences, and for those of them in business, different business practices.” “When in Rome, do as Romans do.” In the 21st century, business between Chinese and other cultures are more frequent, and the various values of various cultures should be taken into managers’ consideration. Also, there may be new foreign employees in the company, and the corporation between natives and foreigners may cause new problems in real life. Avoiding culture crash is an important issue for managers in dealing such problems.  
  2. (words:343)  
   Leadership is defined as people who establish a clear vision to determine the company’s future, share information with other members, and ensure the vision to come true by using knowledge, paying efforts, and balances the conflicting interests among all the shareholders. While manager is defined as people who work with others with an aim of accomplishing goals set by leaders or other senior managers. From the definitions above, it’s obvious to see the difference between two. A leader is much more important and powerful than a manager, because a leader is required to think creatively in difficult situations, and take some great risks to develop the vision. To conclude, leadership controls the company’s life and death.  
   To specify senior management, let me take marketing management for example. Firstly, senior managers need to oversee the implementation of programs and analyze the risks before starting them. And then, they need to convey their thoughts to others and more importantly, to ensure that employees below get the proper information and be clear about what to do in the future. Once decisions are formally made, there is no space for them to regret and senior managers have to take the whole responsibility of failure. Secondly, managers are responsible to develop marketing programs, maybe through advertising, direct marketing and digital marketing. They are required after the start, to push the process and solve the problems newly arise from the procedure. They need to adjust the program in time when environment changes and if the program doesn’t function well, they need to consider weather it should be stopped. Thirdly, they have to analyze the results and give feedbacks to the plans, in order to have a better decision next time. Employees performed well in this program should soon be rewarded, and bad performance should be punished and analyzed to find the deep reasons. Weather the program is successful or not, senior managers have to find the root reasons for the success, or the failures, for the future development. And meanwhile, new adjustment to the company should be made accordingly.  
    
  3. (words: 404)  
   It is well known to us that almost each country has its own typical culture. Similarly, companies in different countries have different structures with the homeland’s nurture. Related to their own countries’ traditions and law, both of Chinese and Western companies hold specific framework for the board structures.  
   Concrete established practice is regarded highly in China, as a deep-rooted tradition. “Nothing can be accomplished without norms or standards.” So the board of supervisors for a company is always required by the company’s regulations, in order to make sure the company’s legal operations. It must include an employee representative from the organization, All China Federation of Trade Unions, an official from the company’s internal Chinese Communist party committee, and at least another member elected by shareholders. To ensure the basic rights of supervisors and protect them not to be threatened by other people, not only people various status are elected to form the whole board of supervisors, but the directors or other senior managers are also required to not put force on its regular transactions. Supervisors are independent from the company, out of the managers’ control, which can guarantee the information provided to be truly and the company’s issues to be legal. It’s obvious to see that the requirements of board structure in Chinese companies are just corresponding to the country’s tradition, that is no embezzlement inside, but supervision outside.  
   While for Western companies, the board structure is much more flexible than due to its ethic favor. In Australia, members of some state-owned companies’ board structure can be hired from outside as long as they have strong management ability. They may be financiers, entrepreneurs, politicians, and scholars, since in most cases, no strict identifies are required. And in America, the board structure always contains three kinds of committees, which are Audit Committee, Compensation Committee and Nominating Committee. In normal condition, the total number should not be above nine. SEC, NYSE, NASDAQ have required the members to be from different fields and have few or no connection with the company. This point is very similar to China, but in America, it doesn’t require anyone from a certain party or union, which is still more flexible than China. Because of the open and free tradition in West, even the companies have to follow much more laws than Chinese ones, such as Common Law and Civil Law, the structures are more flexible.  
    
    
  
 
 
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